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Is it necessary to reuse wastewater: the experience of other countries

Savings of household resources – a rather difficult task. Particularly acute is the need to introduce a policy of “adjusting costs” for water supply. In this material, we will consider in detail the problem of reuse of wastewater. What is this practice, how much it allows you to save and as expedient as possible?


The process of regeneration

Regeneration of water – cleaning and refurbishment of spent liquid and precipitation. Purification involves the transformation of the sewage runoff into the water supply. The spent liquid is subject to the following stages of treatment:

· removal of mechanical particles;

· degassing;

· return of transparency;

· disinfection

The practice of reuse of water came to us from arid countries, where a litre of drinking water costs more than a litre of fuel. It seems strange for many compatriots to drink regenerated water (purified sewage liquid), but in most arid countries this is the only opportunity to offset the shortage of water resources. Regeneration can return more than 50% of wastewater, saving lives to hundreds of millions of people.

However, even developed countries that do not have an obvious shortage of water resources, today also pay attention to the process of regeneration of wastewater. The sewage can not only be drunk but also used for technical purposes. Regeneration to the state of technical water is much cheaper than the state of drinking.

Technical water is a liquid that can not be used in the food industry. You can not drink or use it for cooking. But it is great for watering the ground, washing and wash off in the toilet.


Treatment plant

Regeneration of water is not necessarily a global event, as in central urban or district treatment plants. There are compact systems for the recycling of household or industrial water, which, with the permission of the city authorities, are installed at a specific facility.

In many countries of Europe, private systems for the regeneration of atmospheric precipitation and drainage fluids from the soil have become widespread. Buildings of this type allow reducing the load on the city collector system during the storms and spring floods.

City stations use budget technologies for water preparation, which require large-scale and long-time treatment facilities:


· advocacy;

· flotation;

· infiltration;


Object (private) treatment facilities are compact filtering stations, which instead of separation, defending and other measures listed above apply the following technologies:

· membrane cleaning;

· reverse osmosis

· biofiltration;

· multi-barrier filtration.

The degree of filtration in regeneration systems depends entirely on the requirements of consumers. That is, cleaning the waste liquid for food needs and watering the land has different degrees.

The role of technical water is suitable for the liquid with the presence of sodium salt, phosphates and other aggressive solutions. Such water is used for subsoil watering. That is, the technical water does not process the crown of bushes and trees. The technical fluid is fed immediately to the root system. Water for nutritional needs is subject to more qualitative cleaning.

In countries that do not have a clear shortage of drinking water, sewage is regenerated only to the state of the technical fluid.

Home » May 2017 » Archives for 10.05.2017


In this material, we will tell you how to make your home efficient and functional. To do this, you do not have to invent the wheel. Smart House – modern technologies that make housing the most rational, efficient and functional as possible.

Smart House – a software and hardware complex that allows you economically and, most importantly, distribute power supply to the power grid safely. The main goal is to increase the “intelligence” of household appliances. That is, the equipment for a “smart house” is composed of elements of automatic control, which makes human life more comfortable and safe.

Functional Smart House allows:

· To reduce the load on the power grid (up to 15-20%);

· To increase the reliability of the main systems (security, climatic system);

· To simplify management of equipment;

· To make life more comfortable.

Smart House systems are unified. The software and hardware complex of a smart house in most cases are ready to use the product. Professionals can only pick up the equipment for the needs of a specific customer and set up the system.

Functional Smart House allows you to save up to 15-20% of electricity. At the same time, home furnishing becomes more reliable, safe and functional.

What is Smart House System consist of?

The hardware and software of a smart home require a separate room (multi-room) or a dedicated technological line, where central automation elements and a viewing display will be installed.

Smart House consists of the following systems:

· security (security, video surveillance, access restriction);

· communication (telephony, local computer network);

· entertainment system;

· lighting;

· heating / air conditioning / ventilation;

· distribution of power supply to the power grid;

· control panel.

All functional systems of Smart House are integrated into a single network. The equipment of a reasonable home is composed of elements of automation. That is, lighting, heating, air conditioning and other systems are connected with the control and executive logic unit (artificial intelligence).

Manage your home equipment from one place (multi-room). In addition, many systems of Smart House have a universal control panel. For example, buttons of a keychain are programmed for this or that technique. It is important that the gadget has an infrared port or a wireless module (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth).

Many systems of Smart Houseintegrate with computer networks. If the local network has Internet access, then smart home systems can be managed through remote access using a smartphone.

How does Smart Housework?

All Smart House functional systems are conventionally divided into three categories:

· high priority;

· average priority;

· low priority

A high priority is the security system. The security complex operates around the clock, so the security system works through the battery pack. Depending on the chosen scheme of a Smart House, the batteries replenish the resource either from a domestic network or from a source of alternative energy (solar cell or air engine).

Systems with medium and low priority are switched on, taking into account the expediency and overall load on the grid. For example, if the irrigation system is turned on, then only one of the three conditioners in the house is left in the house. After completing the irrigation, the air conditioning is switched on at full capacity (depending on the chosen home cooling program).

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Over the past few years, in the construction projects of an international level, there has been a real revolution that BIM- technology has implemented. Therefore, native builders who deal with international standards or wish to take part in international construction projects will definitely have to establish construction on the basis of BIM.

BIM (Building Information Model) is a building information model. The technology goes beyond the classical systems of automated design (CAD). It is the basis or foundation for all stages of construction. If CAD opens the way to architectural design work in individual construction projects, then BIM combines all construction: from designing engineering systems to purchasing materials and even service of the facility after its commissioning

BIM design of the main engineering systems

BIM-technology allows you to create projects of dependent on each other engineering systems. For example, air conditioning specialists have developed and integrated a climate system scheme into a common BIM project. The building program displays a general three-dimensional model of the object and shows how it will interact with neighbouring engineering systems. That is, it is possible to immediately identify in which places there will be conflicts between communication, where they will be crossed and how safe they will be for each other.

Unlike classical CAD, BIM technology provides information on the technological features of the engineering system (circuit diagram, name and characteristics of equipment, the possibility of modernization, etc.), and the process of creating communications (technological map of construction), and the dynamics of the interaction of design systems between themselves and with the environment.

It should be noted that even if the planned project engineering system will make unscheduled changes then all developers of the general construction project will know about them. For example, the engineer decided to save on the quality of air conditioners or cooling reagents and made changes before purchasing construction materials. That is, the employee wanted to put a difference from the planned and real costs of himself in his pocket. BIM platform automatically makes changes to the budget, and also proves information about “unscheduled” changes to the attention of the monitoring commission.

Advantages of BIM-technologies

· The only working platform for all project participants.

· Maximum transparency at all stages of project implementation.

· Automatical coordination of all employees in real time.

· Ability to study the project on a three-dimensional model.

· Automatic search for errors and miscalculations.

· Forecasting emergencies and finding weaknesses.

· BIM-construction allows to systematize and generalize all aspects affecting the design, construction, operation and even utilization of the controlled object.

Regulation of the sphere of BIM-construction by the authorities

In Ukraine, there is almost no interest in BIM-technologies among public organizations. BIM standards are used by several organizations involved in international construction projects.

From neighbouring Belarus only began to implement BIM-construction standards. By comparison, in the UK, BIM standards from 2011 are mandatory in the public and industrial sectors. In the US, BIM technologies are being implemented since 2003 (at present the BIM sector has 30 million square meters of housing and engineering space).

Today, no international construction project can do without a BIM platform.

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Support nature – and nature will support you. In the language of modern technology, it is quite possible to translate as: “Go to green energy – and get 75% energy for free”. That is, using 25 kW of electric energy, you can receive 100 kW of thermal, which does not harm the environment and is self-restored. Karno Energy tells you about this free energy help.

Let’s start with the fact that all heat pumps are divided into two categories:

· for the private sector;

· for city objects.

In the private sector, ground-water, water-water, air-water heat pumps are used. That is, a private plot allows you to build freely the necessary communications in the soil or in the reservoir. When it comes to horizontal constructions, then 1 kW of calculated thermal power requires from 25 to 50 m2 of land/water area.

Urban facilities do not have free access to geothermal sources (water and soil). As an urban heat pump, engineering systems of air-air, air-water or power piles are used.

What efficiency of the heat pump depends on?

The efficiency is estimated by the following metrics:

· work-load during the year;

· the amount of energy received.

The greater the load and the more energy is received, the faster the technology will pay off. A well-balanced heat pump, which is used correctly, reflects its price during the first four years under operating conditions for 15-20 years before the first major overhaul.

Heat pumps with a reverse of the thermal circuit are considered to be most effective. This technique can be used throughout the year. During the winter weather season, the pump will provide the facility with warmth, and in the summer it will be cool. Load of the heat pump with reverse is 80%. Classic heat pumps (operating only in winter) provide a load of no more than 40%.

What pumps are used in Ukraine?

1. Soil/water.

Heat pumps of this type are divided into horizontal and vertical. Horizontal systems are picked up to a depth of 3 m (the temperature at this depth is +8 ° C throughout the year). Structures for water are immersed at a depth of 2 m.

For vertical systems it is necessary to drill the soil to a depth of 30-250 m, the temperature of the medium can reach +12 ° C. The wider the hole, the smaller the depth is used. For a well of 30-70 m, it is better to use a hole for 280-300 mm. Vertical heat pumps for water are almost not used today.

Soil/water pumps can work independently of the outside air temperature. The technology will be stable in producing heat even at -40 ° C in the street

2. Air

Techniques of this type can be installed anywhere, even on the roof of a multistory dwelling house. The air heat pump takes at least the useful area. The equipment is much cheaper than ground/water analogues, but as well as they can work year-round, providing heat in the winter, and coolness in the summer.

But air heat pumps have several significant disadvantages: an increased level of sound noise and temperature constraints (the air heat pump does not work at an air temperature below -25 ° C). When it is frost, you will have to use a standby heating system, such as a warm floor or classic radiator heating.

Taking into account the high level of efficiency, affordable price and easy installation, many homeowners prefer the air heat pump itself.